Extensions of  NC

Numerical control has caused a virtual revolution in the discrete metal parts manufacturing industry. The success of NC has led to number of extensions of Numeric Control concepts and technology.  Four of the important developments are the following:

Direct Numerical Control(DNC)

There are number of problems inherent in conventional machiningwhich are motivated machine tool builders to seek imprivements in the basic NC system. Among the difficulties encountered in using conventional numerical control machine are the following  Part programming mistakes,Punched tape, Tape reader, Controller, Management information.

DNC defined

It can be defined as a manufacturing system in which a number of machines are controlled by a computer through direct connection and in real time. The tape reader is omitted in DNC thus releiving the system of its least reliable component. Instead of using tape reader the part program is tranmitted to the machine tool directly from the computer memory. In principle,one computer can be used to control more than 100 seperate machines. Figure below illustrates the general DNC configuration

The system consists of four components.

1. Central computer
2. Bulk memory which stores the NC part programs.
3. Telecommunication lines.
4. Machine Tools.

The computer calls the part program instructions from bulk storage and sends data back from the machines. This two way information flow occurs in real time,which means that machine's requests for instructions must be satisfied almost instantaneously. Similarly, the computer must always be ready to receive information from the machines and respond accordingly. The remarkable feature of the DNC system is that the computer is ervicing a large number of seperate machine tools,all in real time.
Depending upon the number of machines and computational requirements that are imposed on the computer it is sometimes necessary to make use of satellite computersas shown in figure.

Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

CNC is a NC system that utilizes a dedicated, stored program computer to perform some or all of the basic numerical control functions. As of this writing the typical CNC system uses a minicomputer as the controller unit. It is expected that in future generations of computer numerical control,microcomputers will become predominant.
Because a digital computer is used in both CNC and DNC there is often confusion surrounding the two systems.
Figure below shows the general configuration of CNC

Main differences are :

1. DNC computers distribute instructional data to and collect from a large number of machines. CNC computers control only one machine or a small number of machines.
2. DNC computers occupy a location that is typically remote from the machines under their control. CNC computers are located very near their machine tools.
3. DNC softwrae is developed not only to control individual pieces of production technology,but also to serve as part of management information system in the manufacturing sector of the firm. CNC software is developed to augment the capabilities of a particular machine tool.
Except for the fact that a digital computer is used, CNC machines are similar and the part programs are entered in a similar manner. Punched tapes are still the common device for entering the part program into the system

Adaptive Control Machining
One of the priciples reasons for using numerical control(including DNC and CNC) is that NC reduces the nonproductive time in manufacturing. This is accomplished through a reduction in the following elements,which constitue a significant portion of totla production time.

1. Workpiece handling.
2. Setup of the job.
3. Lead times between receipt of a order and production.
4. Tool changes.
5. Operater delays.

For a machining operation the term adaptive control means a control system that measures output process variables and uses these to control system that measures certain uotput process variables nad uses these to control speed and or feed. Some of the process variables and uses these to control speed and feed. Some of the process variables that have been used in adaptive control machining systems include spindle deflection or force,torque,cutting temperature viration amplitude and horsepower .In other words all the metal-cutting variables have been tried in experimental control systems.

A number of potential befitis accure to the user of an adaptive control machine tool . The advantage gained will depend upon the particular job under consideration. There are obviously many machining situations for which    adaptive control system cannot be justified.
1. Increased production rates
2. Increased tool life.
3.Greater part protection.
4.Less operater intervention.
5.Easier part programming.

Industrial Robots
An industrial robot is a general purpose programmable machine possesing certain anthropomorphic charesteristics. It is most typically used for parts handling tasks but can also be used in conjuction with a variety of manufacturing processes. The robots can be programmed to carry out a sequence of mechanical movements. It will perform that sequence over and over  again until reprogrammed to carry out a sequence of mechanical movements .
General Physical Configuration
There are two principal  robot configuration :polar and cylindrical. The two types are illustrated in figure In the polar configuration the body of the robot pivots either horizontally vertically or both. Attached to body pivots is the are that moves by body motion. The are of the robot in the horizontal orientation and can be made to moive up and down and in  or out with respect to the body.

Arm and body motions
1. Vertical traverse Up and down motion of the arm
2.Radial traverse Extension and retraction of the arm
3.Rotational traverse Rotation about the vertical axis

Wrist Motions
4.Wrist swivel  Rotation of the wrist
5.Wrist bend  Up or down movement of the wrist which also involves a rotational movements.
6.Wrist yaw  Right or left swivel of the wrist.

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