In Conventional Machine Tools:
The basic structure of a machine tool consists of base and tower arrangement. Here, depending on the machining process, the tool is fixed on the tower and the workpiece is held on the base or vice-versa.
The relative motion is achieved by movements parallel to the three spatial axes. This is achieved by means of linear guideways and bearings, axial movements along the screws, rack and pinion arrangements etc.
The machine is built of heavy steel and iron parts. The base of the machine usually is of cast iron. The structure is fixed over a concrete base. This arrangement is instrumental in stiffness and vibration control. The tool holding devices, joints and links also control vibration.
The power is generally transmitted by systems comprising of gears, axles, screws etc.
The accuracy and surface finish are dependent on the the accuracy
of relative motion, stiffness and vibration control.