Milling Machines: Similar to drilling.
In the case of milling, both the tool and the workpiece can move horizontal
or vertical direction. Milling machines are used to produce flat surfaces,
sink, and slot.
Machining Centers (Horizontal / Vertical)
Transfer Machines: A number of work stations
(turning, drilling, milling, etc.) aranged behind each other, linked by
the means of an automatic work transportation unit, which governs their
positions and the timing cycle.
Grinding Machines: Basicaly, the cutting
tool provides the cutting movement on grinding machines. The contact between
the workpiece and the grinding wheel is either on the wheel periphery or
on the wheel face.
Honing Machines: The fundamental difference
between honing and grinding techniques, is that when honing, the aim is
only for an improvement in surface finish and dimensional accuracy.
Horizontal Machining Center
Slides and Rails: Guildeways are frame
elements that carry the workpiece table or spindles. There are two way
types: box ways and roller ways.
Picture of way and frame
Roller ways: This way type consists of a rail and a slide, but has
a rolling-element bearing between the two. Roller ways are lighter weight
and operate with less friction, so they can positioned faster and with
less energy. Roller way, however, take more space and is usually more costly.
Electric motor are the prime movers for most machine tool functions. They mostly use 3-phase ac power supplied at 220 or 460 V. Today's spindles generally operate around 10,000 rpm or higher, ranges from 5-150 hp (3.7-112 kW).
Feed motors: Positioning motors drive the ballscrews that move the sildes carrying spindles or worktables. Today's most popular positioning motor is technically called a dc brushless motor, more commonly known as an ac servo motor.
Linear motors: A linear motor is essentially a "straightened out"
rotary motor. The rotor is the slide and the stator is a row of windings.
It is very lightweight relative to the conventional motor, but less accurate
Controls are the brain of all machine tool
operation. Earily machine tool relied on operators to turn the wheels and
pull the leverthat moved cutting tools and the workpiece. Today's machine
tool are mostly relied on numeric control (NC), computer numerical control
(CNC), programmable logic controller (PLC) and/or microprocessors.
Today, engineers create both parts design
and the manufacturing programs to make them on a computer. First, an enginner
designs a part using computer-aided design (CAD), then the design goes
to a computer-aided manufacturing program (CAM). CAM will generate the
tool-paths. Finally, the CNC on the machine tool will execute the tool-paths
Cutting tools remove metal from a workpiece
are usually made of tungsten carbide which is form into inserts that are
clamped onto a holder. In more recent times, high-speed steel are used
for makeing tools. These steels are alloyed with chromium, tungsten,and
cobalt to make them hard, strong, and resistant to mavhing heat at the
A tool holder is a device that holds the
cutting tool. On milling and drilling machines, almost all toolholders
are derivatives of Morse taper designs developed in the early 1900s. Despite
the diversity in today's design, all tooholder have these common elements:
a retention stud or threaded hole on one end, an external taper that nests
in an internal spindle taper, a keyway on the front that drives the toolholder,
and a means for holding a tool shank.
Tools (Inserts) & Toolholders
to Primer Menu