where q is electronic charge, v is the speed of an electron, and B is the magnetic field.
Let us assume that a source of electric current is connected to the upper and lower ends of the strip (Fig. M1). The force F shifts moving electrons toward the right side of the strip which becomes more negative than the lift side. The sign and amplitude of the transverse Hall potential difference VH depends on both magnitude and directions of magnetic field and electric current. At a fixed temperature it is given by
where a is the angle between the magnetic field vector and Hall plate (Fig. M2), and h is the coefficient of overall sensitivity whose value depends on the plate material, its geometry, and its temperature.