Trends in Design and Manufacturing
Traditional Design and Manufacturing Methods
From Statistical Quality Design and Control (DeVor, Chang,
The past has shown us many methods that were quite unproductive. The traditional
approach of "Over the Wall" resulted in the design being thrown back and
forth over the wall. It was seen that the Japanese were solving design
problems a lot earlier in the production process, than the U.S. was. This
resulted in many costs incurred at the proposed project completion. By
looking closer at this, it was found that making design and manufacturing
work together produced a more efficient and econonomical desig n
From Concurrent Engineering Design (Miller)
Quality has become the critical issue. Quality, in this context, is everything
about the product and its associated manufacturing organization. Some suggest
that, traditionally, quality is available but for a higher price. High
quality has become a pr e-existing condition for acceptable product performance.
Any quality initiative must begin with the product and that product's design.
Hence the devleopment of the Concurrent Engineering Design process. The
CE design process provides a stable, repeatable process which increased
accuracy is achieved in a shorter time with less variation. The following
figure outlines the CE design process.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was originally developed by the Japan
Society for Quality Control (JSQC) under the direction of Dr. Yoji Akao.
It was begun in 1975. QFD is a methodology that can be used during early
project stages to make more customer focus ed decisions, focus project
budgets, define project quality, and be responsive to customer's needs
[Mallon and Mulligan, 1993]. To aid in this process, the house of quality
was developed. The figure belows shows an example of just such a house.
The top fl oor lists the design options. The left room lists the customer
attributes. The body relates the design options with the customer attributes.
The roof is the correlation matrix. An importance factor is found by summing
the interation terms. After this is done, hopefully the voice of the customer
will be reflected in the final design.