Generalized Measurement Systems


The performance of a measurement system includes its static and dynamic characteristics.

Static characteristics:

  1. Precision
  2. Accuracy
Dynamic Characteristics
  1. Response characteristic
  2. Dynamic Accuracy


    Uncertainty in instruments

    There are many uncertainties that affect the precision and accuracy of a measurement system. These uncertainties depend on:

    Deterministic and stochastic error

    The measurement error caused by various uncertain factors can be divided into the following categories according to the nature of errors:

    Deterministic error:  The errors are caused by system error such as error due to design principle, temperature shift etc.  Deterministic error of a measurement system can be eliminated by calibration.

    Stochastic error:  The errors are caused by stochastic factors. For Example, white noise of instruments, heat noise of electrical components. The kind of error can be described by statistical method.

    Methods of Calibration

    There are many methods to calibrate lengths, mass, force, torque, angle, flatness, and roundness. Below are some example of calibration.